References

This page has the full reference list from Shanahan, M., So, S., Compton, S.G. & Corlett, R.T. (2001). Fig-eating by Vertebrate Frugivores: A Global Review. Biological Reviews 76:529-572. [PDF].

ADLER, G. H. (2000). Tropical tree diversity, forest structure and the demography of a frugivorous rodent, the spiny rat (Proechimys semispinosus). Journal of Zoology 250, 57-74.

AGAMI, M. & WAISEL, Y. (1988). The role of fish in the distribution and germination of seeds of the submerged macrophytes Najas marina L. and Ruppia maritima L. Oecologia 76, 83-88.

ALI, S. (1996). The Book of Indian Birds. Salim Ali Centenary Edition. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.

ALVAREZ, T. & GONZALEZ, Q. L. (1970). Analisis polinico del contenido gastrico de murcielagos Glossophaginae de Mexico. Anales de la Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biologicas, Mexico 18, 137-165.

ANSTETT, M-C., HOSSAERT-MCKEY, M. & KJELLBERG, F. (1997). Figs and fig pollinators: evolutionary conflicts in a coevolved mutualism. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 12, 94-99.

ANSTETT, M-C., MICHALOUD, G. & KJELLBERG, F. (1995). Modelling the persistence of small populations of strongly interdependent species: the case of figs and fig wasps. Conservation Biology 11, 204-213.

ATHREYA, V. R. (1993). Fruiting strangler figs (genus Ficus, subgenus Urostigma) and temporal variation in visitation of their avian frugivores in a tropical evergreen forest in the Western Ghats, India. M.Sc. thesis., Pondicherry University, Pondicherry, India.

ATHREYA, V. R. (1996). Are ants secondary dispersers of fig seeds in Indian forests? Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 93, 595-596.

ATHREYA, V. R. (1997). Trees with a difference: the strangler figs. Resonance 2, 67-74.

ATSALIS, S. (1999). Diet of the brown mouse lemur (Microcebus rufus) in Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar. International Journal of Primatology 20, 193-229.

AUFFENBERG, W. (1979) A monitor lizard in the Philippines. Oryx 15, 38-46.

AUFFENBERG, W. (1988). Gray’s Monitor Lizard. University of Florida Press, Florida, USA.

AUGUST, P. V. (1981). Fig fruit consumption and seed dispersal by Artibeus jamaicensis in the llanos of Venezuela. Biotropica 13, 70-76.

AYENSU, E. S. (1974). Plant and bat interactions in West Africa. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 61, 702-727.

BAKER, H. G. & HARRIS, B. J. (1957). The pollination of Parkia by bats and its attendant evolutionary problems. Evolution 11, 449-460.

BAKER, J. R. & BAKER, Z. (1936). The seasons in a tropical rain forests. Part 3. The fruit bats. Journal of the Linnean Society of London, (Zoology) 40, 123-141.

BALASUBRAMANIAN, P. (1996). Interactions between fruit-eating birds and bird-dispersed plants in the tropical dry evergreen forest of Point Calimere, South India. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 93, 428-441.

BALASUBRAMANIAN, P. & BOLE, P. V. (1993). Seed dispersal by mammals at Point Calimere Wildlife Sanctuary, Tamil Nadu. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 90, 33-44.

BALASUBRAMANIAN, R., NARENDRA PRASAD, S. & KANDAVEL, K. (1998). Role of Birds and Bird-dispersal in theNatural Regeneration of Forest Plants in Tamil Nadu. Salim Ali Centre for Ornithology and Natural History, Coimbatore, India.

BANACK, S. A. (1996). Flying foxes, genus Pteropus, in the Samoan Islands: interaction with the forest communities. Ph.D. thesis., University of California, USA.

BANCROFT, G. T. & BOWMAN, R. (1994). Temporal patterns in diet of nestling white-crowned pigeons: implications for conservation of frugivorous columbids. Auk 111, 844-852.

BARKER, R.D. & VESTJENS, W. J. M. (1989). The Food of Australian Birds 1. Non-passerines. CSIRO, Melbourne, Australia.

BARKER, R.D. & VESTJENS, W. J. M. (1990). The Food of Australian Birds II. Passerines. CSIRO, Melbourne, Australia.

BARLOW, C. & WACHER, T. (1997). A Field Guide to Birds of the Gambia and Senegal. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.

BARNEA, A., YOM-TOV, Y. & FRIEDMAN, J. (1991). Does ingestion by birds affect seed germination? Functional Ecology 5, 394-402.

BARTELS, M. (1929). Kiara-gasten. De Tropische Natuur 18, 37-42.

BECKER, P., LEIGHTON, M. & PAYNE, J. B. (1985). Why tropical squirrels carry seeds out of source crowns. Journal of Tropical Ecology 1, 183-186.

BECK-KING, H., VON HELVERSEN, O. & BECK-KING, R. (1999). Home range, population density, and food resources of Agouti paca (Rodentia: Agoutidae) in Costa Rica: A study using alternative methods. Biotropica 31, 675-685.

BEDGOOD, G. W. (1970). Bird notes from East Gippsland. Australian Bird Watcher 3, 252-265.

BEEHLER, B. (1983). Frugivory and polygamy in birds of paradise. Auk 100, 1-12.

BEEHLER, B. M. (1987). Ecology and behavior of the Buff-tailed Sicklebill (Paradisaedae, Epimachus albertisi). Auk 105, 48-55.

BEEHLER, B. M. (1989). The birds of paradise. Scientific American 261, 67-73.

BEEHLER, B. M. & DUMBACHER, J. P. (1996). More examples of fruiting trees visited predominantly by birds of paradise. Emu 96, 81-88.

BEEHLER, B. M., PRATT, T. K. & ZIMMERMAN, D. A. (1986). Birds of New Guinea. Princeton University Press, New Jersey, USA.

BERG, C. C. (1989). Classification and distribution of Ficus. Experientia 45, 605-611.

BERG, C. C. & WIEBES, J. T. (1992). African fig trees and fig wasps. North-Holland, Amsterdam.

BERNEY, F. (1906). Field notes on the birds of the Richmond District, North Queensland. Emu 6, 41-47.

BHAT, H. R. (1994). Observations on the food and feeding behaviour of Cynopterus sphinx Vahl (Chiroptera, Pteropodidae) at Pune, India. Mammalia 58, 363-370.

BINGHAM, C. T. (1897). The Great Indian Hornbill in the wild state. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 11, 308-310.

BINSTEAD, G. (1977). Food of the Western Bowerbird in the Chichester Range, W. A. Western Australian Naturalist 14, 77.

BIRKINSHAW, C. R. (1999). The importance of the black lemur (Eulemur macaco) for seed dispersal in Lokobe Forest, Nosy Be. In New Directions in Lemur Studies (ed. B. Rakotosamimanana, H. Rasamimanana, J. Ganzhorn and S. M. Goodman), pp. 189-199. Kluwer Academic, New York, USA.

BLANFOD, W. T. (1870). Observations on the Geology and Zoology of Abyssinia. MacMillan & Co., London, UK.

BLEHER, B., POTGEITER, C. J., JOHNSON, D. N. & BOHNING-GAESE, K. (in review). Fruit availability and keystone plant resources for frugivores in a dry forest in KwaZulu – Natal, South Africa. Journal of Tropical Ecology

BORGES, R. M. (1993). Figs, Malabar giant squirrels and fruit shortages within two tropical Indian forests. Biotropica 25, 183-190.

BRADBURY, J. W. (1981). The evolution of leks. In Natural Selection and Social Behaviour (ed. R. D. Alexander and O. W. Tinkle), pp. 138-169. Chiron Press, New York, USA.

BRAVO, S. P., KOWALEWSKI, M. M. & ZUNINO, G. E. (1995). Dispersión y germinación de semillas de Ficus monckii por Aloutta carya. Boletin Primatologico Latinoamericano 5, 27-30.

BRAVO, S. P. & ZUNINO, G. E. (1998). Effects of black howler monkey (Alouatta caraya) seed ingestion on insect larvae. American Journal of Primatology 45, 411-415.

BREGULLA, H. L. (1992). Birds of Vanuatu. Anthony Nelson, Oswestry, UK.

BREITWISCH, R. (1983). Frugivores at a fruiting Ficus vine in a southern Cameroon tropical wet forest. Biotropica 15, 125-128.

BROOKS, D. M., BODMER, R. E. & MATOLA, S. (1997). Tapirs – Status survey and conservation action plan. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.

BROCKELMAN, W. Y. (1982). Observations of animals feeding in a strangler fig, Ficus drupacea, in southeast Thailand. Natural History Bulletin of the Siam Society 30, 33-44.

BRONSTEIN, J. L. & HOFFMAN, K. (1987). Spatial and temporal variation in frugivory at a neotropical fig, Ficus pertusa. Oikos 49, 261-268.

BROSSET, A. & ERARD, C. (1986). Les oiseaux des regions forestieres du Nord-Est Gabon. Volume I. Ecologie et comportement des especes. Revue d’Ecologie (la Terre et la Vie) supplement 3.

BUCHANAN, R. A. (1989). Pied currawongs (Strepera graculina): their diet and role in weed dispersal in suburban Sydney, New South Wales. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 111, 241-255.

BURBIDGE, A. (1985). The Regent Parrot: a report on the breeding distribution and habitat requirements along the Murray River in South-Eastern Australia. Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service Report Series No 4. National Parks and Wildlife Service, Canberra, Australia.

BURROWS, J. E. & BURROWS, S. M. (in press). The Figs of Southern and South-Central Africa. Umdaus Press, Johannesburg, South Africa.

BUTLER, W. H. (1971). Yellow Figbird in Western Australia. Western Australian Naturalist 12, 21.

CABRE-VERT, N. & FEISTNER, A. T. C. (1995). Comparative gut passage times in captive lemurs. The Dodo 31, 76-81.

CAIN, A. J. & GALBRAITH, I. C. J. (1956). Field notes on the birds of the eastern Solomon Islands. Ibis 98, 100-134.

CANNON, C. E. (1984). The diet of Lorikeets Trichoglossus spp. in the Queensland-New South Wales border region. Emu 84, 16-22.

CARR, G. W. (1993). Exotic flora of Victoria and its impact on indigenous biota. In Flora of Victoria (ed. D. B. Foreman and N. G. Walsh), pp. 256-294. Inkata Press, Melbourne, Australia.

CARVALHO, C. T. (1960). Sobre os hàbitos alimemtares de phillostomeideos (Mammalia, Chiroptera). Revista de Biologia Tropical 9, 53-60.

CATERALL, C. P. (1985). Winter energy deficits and the importance of fruit versus insects in a tropical island bird population. Australian Journal of Ecology 10, 265-279.

CHANDLER, L. G. (1915). Figs eaten by Butcherbird. Emu 15, 51.

CHAO, J., KOH, C., FANG, K., CHEN, Y. & YEH, W. (1993). Feeding on plants by the Red-bellied Tree Squirrel Callosciurus erythraeus in Taipei Botanical Garden. Bulletin of the Taiwan Forestry Research Institute, New Series 8, 39-50.

CHAPIN, J. C. (1954). The birds of the Belgian Congo. Part IV. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 75B, 1-846.

CHAPMAN, C. A. (1989). Primate seed dispersal: the fate of dispersed seeds. Biotropica 21, 148-154.

CHARLES-DOMINQUE, P., ATRAMENTOWICZ, M., CHARLES-DOMINIQUE, M., GERARD, H., HLADIK, A., HLADIK, C. M. & PREVOST, M. F. (1981). Les mammiferes frugivores arboricoles nocturnes d’une foret guyanaise: inter-relations plantes-animaux. Revue d’Ecologie (La Terre et la Vie) 35, 341-435.

CHATURVEDI, N. (1993). Dietary of the cattle egret Bubulcus coromandus (Boddaert). Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 90, 90.

CHENG, C. (1996). Nature Reserves of Guandong Province. Guandong Tourism Publishing House, Guandong, China.

CHIMCHOME, V., VIDHIDHARM, A., SIMCHAREON, S., BUMRUNGSRI, S. & POONSWAD, P. (1998). Comparative study of the breeding biology and ecology of two endangered hornbills species in Huai Kha Khaeng wildlife sanctuary, Thailand. In The Asian Hornbills: Ecology and Conservation (ed. P. Poonswad), pp. 111-136. Biodiversity Research and Training Program, National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Bangkok, Thailand.

CHIVERS, D. J. (1977). The feeding behaviour of Siamang (Symphalangus syndactylus). In Primate Ecology: Studies of Feeding and Ranging Behaviour in Lemurs, Monkeys and Apes (ed. T. H. Clutton-Brock), pp. 335-382. Academic Press, London, UK.

CHUANG, S-A, & LEE, L-L. (1997). Food habits of three carnivore species (Viverricula indica, Herpestes urva and Melogale moschata) in Fushan Forest, northern Taiwan. Journal of Zoology 243, 71-79.

CHURCH, R. J. (1997). Avian frugivory in a subtropical rainforest: Eleven years of observations in Lamington National Park. The Sunbird 27, 85-97.

CLELAND, J. B., MAIDEN, J. H., FROGGART, W. W., FERGUSON, E. W. & MUSSON, C. T. (1918) The Food of Australian Birds. New South Wales Department of Agricultural Science Bulletin No 15. N.S.W. Department of Agrigultural Science, Sydney, Australia.

CLEMENT, P., HARRIS, A., DAVIS, J. (1993). Finches and Sparrows, an identification guide. Christopher Helm, London, UK.

COATES, B. J. (1985). The Birds of Papua New Guinea including the Bismarck Archipelago and Bouganville. Volume 1. Non-Passerines. Dove Publications, Alderley, Queensland, Australia.

COATES, B. J. (1990). The Birds of Papua New Guinea including the Bismarck Archipelago and Bouganville. Volume 2. Passerines. Dove Publications, Alderley, Queensland, Australia.

COATES, B. J. & BISHOP, K. D. (1997). A Guide to the Birds of Wallacea. Dove Publications, Alderley, Queensland, Australia.

COATES-ESTRADA, R. & ESTRADA, A. (1986). Fruiting and frugivores at a strangler fig in the tropical rain forest of Los Tuxtlas, Mexico. Journal of Tropical Ecology 2, 349-357.

COCKRUM, E. L. & BRADSHAW, G. R. (1963). Notes on mammals from Sonora, Mexico. Amer. Mus. Novit. 2138, 1-9.

COMPTON, S. G., CRAIG, A. J. F. K. & WATERS, I. W. R. (1996). Seed dispersal in an African fig tree: birds as high quantity, low quality dispersers? Journal of Biogeography 23, 553-563.

COMPTON, S. G. & MCCORMACK, G. (1999). The pacific banyan in the Cook islands: Have its pollination and seed dispersal mutualisms been disrupted, and does it matter? Biodiversity and Conservation 8, 1707-1705.

CONCEICAO DE SOUZA-STEVAUX, M., NEGRELLE, R. R. B. & CITADINI-ZANETTE, V. (1994). Seed dipsersal by the fish Pterodoras granulosus in the Parama river basin, Brazil. Journal of Tropical Ecology 10, 621-626.

CONKLIN, N. L. & WRANGHAM, R. W. (1994). The value of figs to a hind-gut fermenting frugivore: a nutritional analysis. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 22, 137-151.

COOPER, H. M. (1958). Currawongs on Kangaroo Island. South Australian Ornithologist 22, 5-6.

COOPER, W. & COOPER, W. T. (1995). Fruit of the Rain Forest. A Guide to the Fruit in Australian Tropical Rain Forests. Blackie, London, UK.

CORBET, G. B. & HILL, J. E. (1991). A World List of Mammalian Species. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.

CORLETT, R. T. (1984). The phenology of Ficus benjamina and Ficus microcarpa in Singapore. Journal of the Singapore Academy of Science 13, 30-31.

CORLETT, R. T. (1987). The phenology of Ficus fistulosa in Singapore. Biotropica 19, 122-124.

CORLETT, R. T. (1993). Sexual dimorphism in the reproductive phenology of Ficus grossularioides Burm. f. in Singapore. Malayan Nature Journal 46, 149-155.

CORLETT, R. T. (1996). Characteristics of vertebrate dispersed fruits in Hong Kong. Journal of Tropical Ecology 12, 819-833.

CORLETT, R. T. (1998a). Frugivory and seed dispersal by birds in Hong Kong scrubland. Forktail 13, 23-27.

CORLETT, R. T. (1998b). Frugivory and seed dispersal by vertebrates in the Oriental (Indomalayan) Region. Biological Reviews 73, 413-448.

CORLETT, R. T. (2000). Birds eating figs in Brazil. Porcupine! (Newsletter of the Department of Ecology and Biodiversity, The University of Hong Kong) 21, 18

CORLETT, R. T. & LUCAS, P. W. (1990). Alternative seed-handling strategies in primates – seed-spitting by long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis). Oecologia 82, 166-171.

CORNER, E. J. H. (1965). Check list of Ficus in Asia and Australasia, with keys to identification. Garden’s Bulletin, Singapore 21, 1-186.

CORNER, E. J. H. (1988). Wayside Trees of Malaya, Volume 2. 3rd edition. United Selangor Press, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

COWLES, G. S. & GOODWIN, D. (1959). Seed digestions by the fruit eating pigeon Treron. Ibis 101, 253-254.

CRAIG, R. J. (1996). Seasonal population surveys and natural history of a Micronesian bird community. Wilson Bulletin 108, 246-267.

CRAMP, S. (1977). Handbook of the Birds of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa. (The Birds of the Western Palearctic.) Vol. I. Ostrich to Ducks. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.

CRAMP, S. (1983). Handbook of the Birds of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa. (The Birds of the Western Palearctic.) Vol. III. Waders to Gulls. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.

CRAMP, S. (1985). Handbook of the Birds of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa. (The Birds of the Western Palearctic). Vol. IV: Terns to Woodpeckers. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.

CRAMP, S. (1988). Handbook of the Birds of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa. (The Birds of the Western Palearctic.) Vol. V. Tyrant Flycatchers to Thrushes. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.

CRAMP, S. (1992). Handbook of the Birds of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa. (The Birds of the Western Palearctic.) Vol. VI. Warblers. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.

CRAMP, S. & PERRINS, C. M. (1993). Handbook of the Birds of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa. (The Birds of the Western Palearctic.) Vol. VII. Flycatchers to Shrikes. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.

CRAMP, S. & PERRINS, C. M. (1994). Handbook of the Birds of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa. (The Birds of the Western Palearctic.) Vol. VIII. Crows to Finches. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.

CRANBROOK, EARL OF & EDWARDS, D. S. (1994). A Tropical Rainforest. The Nature of Biodiversity at Belalong, Brunei. Royal Geographic Society & Sun Tree Publishing, UK and Singapore.

CROME, F. H. J. (1975). The ecology of fruit pigeons in tropical north Queensland. Australian Wildlife Research 2, 155-185.

CROME, F. H. J. (1978). Foraging ecology of an assemblage of birds in lowland rainforest in north Queensland. Australian Journal of Ecology 3, 195-212.

CROUTHER, M. M. (1985). Some breeding records of the common koel Eudynamis scolopacea. Australian Bird Watcher 11, 49-56.

CRUZ, A. (1980). Avian feeding assemblages in Puerto Rico. Caribbean Journal of Science 15, 21-27.

CUMMING, G. S. & BERNARD, R. T. F. (1997). Rainfall, food abundance and timing of parturition in African bats. Oecologia 111, 309-317.

DATE, E. M., FORD, H. A. & RECHER, H. F. (1991). Frugivorous pigeons, stepping stones and weeds in northern New South Wales. In Nature Conservation 2. The Role of Corridors (ed. D. A. Saunders and R. J. Hobbs), pp. 241-245. Surrey Beatty & Sons, Chipping Norton, New South Wales, Australia.

DAVIS, A. J. & SUTTON, S. L. (1997). A dung beetle that feeds on figs: implications for the measurement of species rarity. Journal of Tropical Ecology 13, 759-766.

DAWS, G. & FUJITA, M. (1999). Archipelago. The Islands of Indonesia. University of California Press, Berkeley, USA.

DECKER, B. S. (1989). Effects of habitat distribution on the behavioural ecology and demographics of the Tana River red colobus (Colobus badia rufomitratus). Ph.D. theis, Emory University, Atlanta, USA.

deFIGUEIREDO, R. A. (1993). Ingestion of Ficus enormis seeds by howler monkeys Alouatta fusca in Brazil: effects on seed germination. Journal of Tropical Ecology 9, 541-543.

deFIGUEIREDO, R. A. (1996a). Complex interactions in nature: parrotlet feeding on fig fruits lessens seed dispersal and gene flow. Ciencia e Cultura: Journal of Brazilian Association for Advancement of Science 48, 282-283.

deFIGUEIREDO, R. A. (1996b). Vertebrates at neotropical fig species in a forest fragment. Tropical Ecology 37, 139-141.

deFIGUEIREDO, R. A., MOTTA JR, J. C. & VASCONCELLOS, L. A. D. S. (1995). Pollination, seed dispersal, seed germination and establishment of seedlings of Ficus microcarpa, Moraceae, in southeastern Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Biologia 55, 233-239.

DEFLER, T. R. & DEFLER, S. B. (1996). Diet of a group of Lagothrix lagothricha lagothricha in southeastern Colombia. International Journal of Primatology 17, 161-190.

DEL HOYO, J., ELLIOT, A. & SARGATAL, J. (1994). Handbook of the Birds of the World. Volume 2. New World Vultures to Guineafowl. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

DEL HOYO, J., ELLIOT, A. & SARGATAL, J. (1997). Handbook of the Birds of the World. Volume 4. Sandgrouse to Cuckoos. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

DEL HOYO, J., ELLIOT, A. & SARGATAL, J. (2000). Handbook of the Birds of the World. Volume 5. Barn Owls to Hummingbirds. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

DEL HOYO, J., ELLIOT, A. & SARGATAL, J. (2001). Handbook of the Birds of the World. Volume 6. Mousebirds to Hornbills. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

DEW, J. L. & WRIGHT, P. (1998). Frugivory and seed dispersal by four species of primates in Madagascar’s eastern rain forest. Biotropica 30, 425-437.

DINERSTEIN, E. (1979). An ecological survey of the Royal Karnali-Bardia Wildlife Reserve, Nepal. Part II. Habitat / animal interactions. Biological Conservation 16, 265-300.

DINERSTEIN, E. (1986). Reproductive ecology of fruit bats and the seasonality of fruit production in a Costa Rican cloud forest. Biotropica 18, 307-318.

DINERSTEIN, E. (1987). Deer, plant phenology, and succession in the lowland forests of Nepal. In Biology and Management of the Cervidae (ed. C. M. Wemmer), pp. 272-288. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D. C., USA.

DOCTERS VAN LEEUWEN, W. M. (1935). The dispersal of plants by fruit-eating bats. Gardens Bulletin, Straits Settlement 9, 58-63.

DOWSETT-LEMAIRE, F. (1988). Fruit choice and seed dissemination by birds and mammals in the evergreen forests of upland Malawi. Revue d’Ecologie (La Terre et la Vie) 43, 251-285.

DOWSETT-LEMAIRE, F. (1990). Eco-ethology, distribution and status of Nyungwe Forest birds (Rwanda). Tauraco Research Report 3, 31-85.

DOWSETT-LEMAIRE, F. (1996). Avian frugivore assemblages at three small-fruited tree species in the forests of northern Congo. Ostrich 67, 88-89.

DUDLEY, J. P. (2000). Seed dispersal by elephants in semiarid woodland habitats of Hwange National Park, Zimbabwe. Biotropica 32, 556-561.

DUPONT, J. E. & RABOR, D. S. (1973). Birds of Dinagat and Siargao, Philippines. Nemouria 10, 1-111.

EBY, P. (1998). An analysis of diet specialization in frugivorous Pteropus poliocephalus (Megachiroptera) in an Australian subtropical rainforest. Australian Journal of Ecology 5, 443-456.

ELANGOVAN, V., MARIMUTHU, G. & KUNZ, T. H. (1999). Temporal patterns of individual and group foraging behaviour in the short-nosed fruit bat, Cynopterus sphinx, in South India. Journal of Tropical Ecology 15, 681-687.

EMMONS, L. H. (1980). Ecology and resource partitioning among nine species of African rain forest squirrels. Ecological Monographs 50, 31-54.

EMMONS, L. H. (1991). Frugivory in treeshrews (Tupaia). American Naturalist 138, 642-649.

ENTWISTLE, A. C. & CORP, N. (1997). The diet of Pteropus voeltzkowi, an endangered fruit bat endemic to Pemba Island, Tanzania. African Journal of Ecology 35, 351-360.

ESTRADA, A. & COATES-ESTRADA, R. (1986). Frugivory by howling monkeys (Alouatta palliata) at Los Tuxtlas, Mexico: dispersal and fate of seeds. In Frugivores and Seed Dispersal (ed. A. Estrada & T. H. Fleming), pp 93-104. Junk, Dordrecht, Netherlands.

EVANS, P. G. H. (1979). Status and conservation of the Seychelles black parrot. Biological Conservation 16, 233-240.

FAN, Z. (1990). Zhong Guo Niao Lei Zhong Bie Gai Yao. Liao Ning Science Press, Beijing, China.

FEARE, C. & CRAIG, A. (1998). Starlings and Mynas. Christopher Helm, London.

FITZPATRICK, J. W. (1983). Tyrannus melancholicus (Tirano Tropical, Pecho Amarillo, Tropical Kingbird). In Costa Rican Natural History (ed. D. H. Janzen), pp. 611-613. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, USA.

FLANNERY, T. (1995). Mammals of New Guinea. Revised and Updated Edition. Cornell University Press, New York, USA.

FLANNERY, T. F. (1994). Possums of the World. A Monograph of Phalangeroidea. GEO in association with the Australian Museum, Sydney, Australia.

FLEMING, T. H. (1981). Fecundity, fruiting pattern, and seed dispersal in Piper amalago (Piperaceae), a bat-dispersed tropical shrub. Oecologia 51, 42-46.

FLEMING, T. H. (1983). Carollia perspicillata (Murcielago Candelaro, Lesser Short-tailed Fruit Bat). In Costa Rican Natural History (ed. D. H. Janzen), pp. 457-458. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, USA.

FLEMING, T. H. & HEITHAUS, E. R. (1981). Frugivorous bats, seed shadows and the structure of tropical forests. Biotropica 13 (suppl.), 45-53.

FLEMING, T. H., HEITHAUS, E. R. & SAWYER, W. B. (1977). An experimental analysis of the food location behaviour of frugivorous bats. Ecology 58, 619-627.

FLEMING, T. H., HOPPER, E. T. & WILSON, D. E. (1972). Three Central American bat communities: structure, reproductive cycles, and movement patterns. Ecology 53, 555-569.

FORSHAW, J. E. & COOPER, W. T. (1981). Australian Parrots. 2nd (revised) edition. Lansdowne, Melbourne, Australia.

FORSHAW, J. M. & MULLER, K. A. (1978). Annotated list of birds observed at Iron Range, Cape York peninsula, Queensland, during October 1974. Australian Birdwatcher 7, 171-194.

FOSTER, R. B. (1982a). Famine on Barro Colorado Island. In The Ecology of a Tropical Forest. Seasonal Rhythms and Long-term Changes (ed. E. G. Leigh Jr, A. S. Rand and D. M. Windsor), pp. 210-212. Smithsonian Instituion Press, Washington D.C., USA.

FOSTER, R. B. (1982b). The seasonal rhythm of fruitfall on Barro Colorado Island. In The Ecology of a Tropical Forest. Seasonal Rhythms and Long-term Changes (ed. E. G. Leigh Jr, A. S. Rand and D. M. Windsor), pp. 151-172. Smithsonian Instituion Press, Washington D.C., USA.

FRAGOSO, J. M. V. (1997). Tapir-generated seed shadows: scale-dependent patchiness in the Amazon rain forest Journal of Ecology 85, 519-529.

FRAGOSO, J. M.V. & HUFFMAN, J. M. (2000). Seed-dispersal and seedling recruitment patterns by the last Neotropical megafaunal element in Amazonia, the tapir. Journal of Tropical Ecology 16, 369-385.

FRANKIE, G. W., BAKER, H. G. & OPLER, P. A. (1974). Comparitive phenological studies of trees in tropical wet and dry forests in the lowlands of Costa Rica. Journal of Ecology 62, 881-919.

FRITH, C. B. & BEEHLER, B. M. (1998). The Birds of Paradise. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.

FRITH, H. J. (1952). Notes on the pigeons of the Richmond River, N.S.W. Emu 52, 89-99.

FRITH, H. J. (1957) Food habits of the topknot pigeon. Emu 57, 341-345.

FRITH, H. J. (1982). Pigeons and Doves of Australia. Rigby, Melbourne, Australia.

FRITH, H. J., MCKEAN, J. L. & BRAITHWAITE, L. W. (1976a). Sexual cycles and food of the doves Streptopelia chinensis and Streptopelia senegalensis in Australia. Emu 76, 15-24.

FRITH, H. J., WOLFE, T. O. & BARKER, R. D. (1976b). Food of eight species of Columbidae, in the genera Geopelia, Phaps, Geophaps and Petrophassa. Australian Wildlife Research 3, 159-171.

FROST, P. G. H. (1988). Fruit-frugivore interactions in a South African coastal dune forest. Acta XVII Congressus Internationalis Ornithologi 3, 1179-1184.

FRY, C. H., KEITH, S. & URBAN, E. K. (1988). The Birds of Africa. Volume III. Academic Press, London, UK.

FUENTES, A. (1996). Feeding and ranging in the Mentawai Island langur (Presbytis potenziani). International Journal of Primatology 17, 525-548.

FUJITA, M. S. & TUTTLE, M. D. (1991). Flying foxes (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae): threatened animals of key ecological and economical importance. Conservation Biology 5, 455-463.

FULLER, O. (1942). English starling eating olives. South Australian Ornithologist 16, 44.

FUNAKOSHI, F., WATANABE, H. & KUNISAKI, T. (1993). Feeding ecology of the northen Ryukyu fruit bat, Pteropus dasymallus, in a warm-temperate region. Journal of Zoology 230, 221-230.

FWS. (1992). Endangered and Threatened Species of the Southeastern United States (The Red Book). FWS Region 4. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington D.C., USA.

GALDIKAS, B. M. F. (1988). Orangutan diet, range, and activity at Tanjung Puting, Central Borneo. International Journal of Primatology 9, 1-35.

GALETTI, M., MARTUSCELLI. P., OLMOS, F. & ALEIXO, A. (1997). Ecology and conservation of the jacutinga Pipile jacutinga in the Atlantic Forest of Brazil. Biological Conservation 82, 31-39.

GALETTI, M. & MORELLATO, L. P. C. (1994). Diet of the large fruit-eating bat Artibeus lituratus in a forest fragment in Brasil. Mammalia 58, 661-665.

GALETTI, M. & PEDRONI, F. (1994). Seasonal diet of capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) in a semideciduous forest in south-east Brazil. Journal of Tropical Ecology 10, 27-39.

GALETTI, M., PEDRONI, F. & MORELLATO, L. P. C. (1994). Diet of the brown howler monkey Alouatta fusca in a forest fragment in southeastern Brazil. Mammalia 58, 111-118.

GANZHORN, J. U. (1988). Food partitioning among Malagasy primates. Oecologia 75, 436-450.

GARBITT, N. (1999). Mammals of Madagascar. Pica Press, Surrey, UK.

GARDNER, A. L. (1977). Feeding Habits. In Biology of the Bats of the New World Family; Phyllostamotidae. Part 2 (ed. R. J. Baker, J. K. Jones and D. C. Carter), pp. 293-335. Special Publications of The Museum, Texas Tech University. Number 13. Texas Tech Press, Lubbick, Texas, USA.

GARTLAN, J. S. & STRUHSAKER, T. T. (1972). Polyspecific associations and niche separation of rain-forest anthropoids in Cameroon, West Africa. Journal of Zoology 168, 221-266.

GATTER, W. (1997). Birds of Liberia. Pica Press, East Sussex, UK.

GAUTIER-HION, A. (1980). Seasonal variation of diet related to species and sex in a community of Cercopithecus monkeys. Journal of Animal Ecology 49, 237-269.

GAUTIER-HION, A., EMMONS, L. H. & DUBOST, G. (1980). A comparison of the diets of three major groups of primary consumers of Gabon (primates, squirrels and ruminants). Oecologia 45, 182-189.

GAUTIER-HION, A., HECKETSWEILER, P., SOURD, C., TIOLLAY, J. M., ROUSILHON, C., QURIS, R., DECOUX, J. P., DUBOST, G., DUPLANTIER, J. M., ERARD, C., EMMONS, L., FEER, F. & MOUNGAZI, A. (1985). Fruit characters as a basis of fruit choice and seed dispersal in a tropical forest vertebrate community. Oecologia 65, 324-337.

GAUTIER-HION, A. & MICHALOUD, P. (1989). Are figs always keystone resources for tropical frugivorous vertebrates? A test in Gabon. Ecology 70, 1826-1833.

GINIGE, P. (1998). Notes on some observations of the habitats and biology of hornbills in Sri Lanka. In The Asian Hornbills: Ecology and Conservation (ed. P. Poonswad), pp. 33-48. Biodiversity Research and Training Program, National Center for Genetic Enginereing and Biotechnology, Bangkok, Thailand.

GITTINS, L. E. & RAEMAEKERS, J. J. (1980). Siamang, lar and agile gibbons. In Malayan Forest Primates. Ten Years Study in Tropical Rain Forest (ed. D. J. Chivers), pp. 63-105. Plenum Press, New York, USA.

GLANZ, W. E., THORINGTON JR, R. W., GIACALONE-MADDEN, J., HEANEY, L. R. (1982). Seasonal food use and demographic trends in Sciurus granatensis. In The Ecology of a Tropical Forest. Seasonal Rhythms and Long-term Changes (ed. E. G. Leigh Jr, A. S. Rand and D. M. Windsor), pp. 239-252. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C., USA.

GOODMAN, S. M., GANZHORN, J. U. & WILMÉ, L. (1997). Observations at a Ficus tree in Malagasy Humid Forest. Biotropica 29, 480-488.

GOODWIN, G. G. & GREENHALL, A. M. (1961). A review of the bats of Trinidad and Tobago. Description, rabies infection and ecology. Buletin of the American Museum of Natural History 122, 187-302.

GOODWIN, D. (1983). Pigeons and Doves of the World, 3rd edition. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, N.Y., USA.

GORCHOV, D. L., CORNEJO, F., ASCORRA, C. F. & JARAMILLO, M. (1995). Dietary overlap between frugivorous birds and bats in the Peruvian Amazon. Oikos 74, 235-250.

GOULD, J. (1865). Handbook to the birds of Australia. J. Gould, London, UK.

GRAHAM, C. H., MOERMOND, T. C., KRISTENSEN, K. A. & MVUKIYUMWAMI, J. (1995). Seed dispersal effectiveness by two bulbuls in Masea lanceolata, an African montane forest tree. Biotropica 27, 476-486.

GRAHAM, D. L. (1996). Interactions of understorey plants and frugivorous birds in a lowland Costa Rican forest. Ph.D. thesis, University of Miami, Miami, USA.

GREEFF, J. M. & WHITING, M. J. (1999). Dispersal of Namaqua Fig (Ficus cordata cordata) seeds by the Augrabies Flat Lizard (Platysaurus broadleyi). Journal of Herpetology 33, 328-330.

GREEN, R. J. (1993). Avian seed dispersal in and near subtropical rainforests. Wildlife Research 20, 535-557.

GREENHALL, A. M. (1956). The food of some Trinidad fruit bats (Artibeus and Carollia). Journal of the Agricultural Society of Trinidad and Tobago 869, 1-23.

GREWAL, B., MONGA, S. & WRIGHT, G. (1993). Birds of India, Bangladesh, Nepal, Pakistan and Shri Lanka: A Photographic Guide. Guidebook Company Limited, Hong Kong.

GRIMMETT, R., INSKIPP, C. & INSKIPP, T. (1998). Birds of the Indian Subcontinent. Christopher Helm, London, UK.

GRUEZO, W. S. & SOLIGAM, A. C. (1990). Identity and germination of seeds from feces of the Philippine Palm Civet (Paradoxurus philippensis Jourdan). Natural History Bulletin of the Siam Society 38, 69-82.

HAILEY, A. (1997). Digestive efficiency and gut morphology of omnivorous and herbivorous African tortoises. Canadian Journal of Zoology 75, 787-794.

HALL, G. (1987). Seed dispersal by birds of prey. Zimbabwe Science News 21, 2.

HALL, K. R. L. (1965). Behaviour and ecology of the wild Patas monkey, Erythrocebus patas, in Uganda. Journal of Zoology 148, 15-87.

HAMANN, A. & CURIO, E. (1999). Interactions among frugivores and fleshy fruit trees in a Philippine submontane rainforest. Conservation Biology 13, 766-773.

HAMILTON, W. J. I. (1986). Namib Desert baboon (Papio ursinus) use of food and water resources during a food shortage. Madoqua 14, 397-407.

HANDLEY, C. O. Jr., GARDNER, A. L. & WILSON, D. E. (1991). Demography and natural history of the Common Fruit Bat, Artibeus jamaicensis, on Barro Colorado Island, Panama. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology Number 511. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C., USA.

HARRISON, R. D. (1996). The ecology of the fig – fig wasp mutualism in a lowland tropical forest in Sarawak, Malaysia. M.Sc. thesis, Center for Ecological Research, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.

HARTWIG, H-G. (1993). The central nervous system of birds: A study of functional morphology. In Avian Biology. Vol IX (ed. D. S. Farner, J. R. King and K. C. Parkes), pp. 1-119. Academic Press, London, UK.

HEALEY, C. (1992). Abundance, diet and roosting defecations of the Torresian Imperial-Pigeon Ducula spilorrhoa in Darwin. Corella 16, 107-110.

HEITHAUS, E. R., FLEMING, T. H. & OPLER, P. A. (1975). Patterns of foraging and resource utilisation in seven species of bats in a seasonal tropical forest. Ecology 56, 841-854.

HERBST, L. H. (1986). The role of nitrogen fruit pulp in the nutrition of the frugivorous bat Carollia perspicillata. Biotropica 18, 39-44.

HEYDON, M. J. & BULLOH, P. (1997). Mousedeer densities in a tropical rainforest: the impact of selective logging. Journal of Applied Ecology 34, 484-496.

HIDE, R. L., PERNETTA, J. C. & SENABE, T. (1984). Exploitation of wild animals. The Research Report of the Simbu Land Use Project, Vol. 4. South Simbu: Studies in Demography, Nutrition, and Subsistence. I. A. S. E. R., Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea.

HIGGINS, P. J. (1999). Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic Birds. Volume 4. Parrots to Dollarbird. Oxford University Press, Melbourne, Australia.

HIGGINS, P. J. & DAVIES, S. J. J. F. (1996). Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic Birds. Volume 3. Snipe to Pigeons. Oxford University Press, Melbourne, Australia.

HIRAIWA-HASEGAWA, M. (1990). Role of food sharing between mother and infant in the ontogeny of feeding behaviour. In The Chimpanzees of the Mahale Mountains: Sexual and Life-history Strategies (ed. T. Nishada), pp. 267-275. University of Tokyo Press, Tokyo, Japan.

HLADIK, C-M. (1977). A comparative study of the feeding strategies of two sympatric species of leaf monkeys: Presbytis senex and Presbytis entellus. In Primate Ecology: Studies of Feeding and Ranging Behaviour in Lemurs, Monkeys and Apes (ed. T. H. Clutton-Brock), pp. 324-353. Academic Press, London, UK.

HLADIK, C-M. (1981). Diet and the evolution of feeding strategies among forest primates. In Omnivorous Primates (ed. R. S. O Harding and G. Telai), pp. 215-254. Columbia University Press, New York, USA.

HNATIUK, S. H. (1978). Plant dispersal by the Aldabran giant tortoise Geochelone gigantea (Schweigger). Oecologia 36, 345-350.

HOLMES, G. (1987). Avifauna of the Big Scrub Region. New South Wales National Parks and Wildlife Service, Sydney, Australia.

HOLMES, G. (1990). The biology and ecology of Coxen’s fig parrot. Royal Australian Ornithological Union Report 65, 1-34.

HORN, M. H. (1997). Evidence for dispersal of fig seeds by the fruit-eating characid fish Brycon guatemalensis Regan in a Cost Rican tropical rain forest. Oecologia 109, 259-264.

HOWE, H. F. (1983). Rhamphastos swainsonii (Dios Tede, Toucan de Swainson, Chestnut-mandibled Toucan). In Costa Rican Natural History (ed. D. H. Janzen), pp. 603-604. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, USA.

HOWE, H. F. (1990). Seed dispersal by birds and mammals: implications for seedling demography. In Reproductive Ecology of Tropical Forest Plants (ed. K. S. Bawa and M. Hadley), pp. 191-218. UNESCO & Parthenon Publishing Group, Paris, France.

HOWE, H. F. (1993). Specialised and generalised dispersal systems: where does ‘the paradigm’ stand? Vegetatio 107/108, 3-13.

HOWE, H. F., SCHUPP, E. W. & WESTLEY, L. C. (1985). Early consequences of seed dispersal for a neotropical tree (Virola surinamensis). Ecology 66, 781-791.

HOWE, H. F., & VANDE KERCKHOVE, G. A. (1979). Fecundity and seed-dispersal of a tropical tree. Ecology 60, 180-189.

HUME, I. D. (1998). Marsupial Nutrition. Cambridge University Press, New York, USA.

HUME, I. D., JAZWINSKI, E. & FLANNERY, T. F. (1993). Morphology and function of the digestive tract in New Guinea possums. Australian Journal of Zoology 41, 85-100.

HUTCHINS, B. R. & LOVELL, R. H. (1985). Australian Parrots. Avicultural Society of Australia, Melbourne, Australia.

IDANI, G. (1986). Seed dispersal by Pygmy Chimpanzees (Pan paniscus): A preliminary report. Primates 27, 441-447.

IDANI, G., KURODA, S., KANO, T. & ASATO, R. (1994). Flora and vegetation of Wamba Forest, Central Zaire with reference to bonobo (Pan paniscus) foods. Tropics 3, 309-332.

INNIS, G. J. (1989). Feeding ecology of fruit pigeons in subtropical rainforests of South-east Queensland. Australian Wildlife Research 16, 365-394.

INNIS, G. J. & MCEVOY, J. (1992). Feeding ecology of Green Catbirds (Ailuroedus crassirostris) in subtropical rainforests of south-eastern Queensland. Wildlife Research 19, 317-329.

ISLAM, M. A. & FEEROZ, M. M. (1992). Ecology of the Hoolock Gibbon. Primates 33, 451-464.

ISLER, M. L. & ISLER, P. R. (1999). The Tanagers. Natural history, distribution, and identification. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D. C., USA.

JACKSON, S. W. (1910). Additional notes on the Tooth-billed Bower-Bird (Scenopactes dentirostria) of North Queensland. Emu 10, 81-88.

JACOBS, G. H. (1996). Primate photopigments and primate color vision. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 93, 577-581.

JACOBSON, N. H. G. & DUPLEISS, E. (1976). Observations on the ecology and the biology of the Cape fruit bat Rousettus aegyptiacus leachi in the Eastern Transvaal. South African Journal of Science 72, 270-273.

JANZEN, D. H. (1979). How to be a fig. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 10, 13-51.

JANZEN, D. H. (1981). Ficus ovalis seed predation by an orange-chinned parakeet (Brotogeris jugularis) in Costa Rica. Auk 98, 841-844.

JANZEN, D. H. (1983a). Canis latrans (Coyote). In Costa Rican Natural History (ed. D. H. Janzen), pp. 456-457. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, USA.

JANZEN, D. H. (1983b). Eira barbara (Tolumuco, Tayra). In Costa Rican Natural History (ed. D. H. Janzen), pp. 469-470. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, USA.

JANZEN, D. H. (1983c). Odocoileus virginianus (Venado, Venado Cola Blanca, White-tailed Deer). In Costa Rican Natural History (ed. D. H. Janzen), pp. 481-483. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, USA.

JARMAN, H. (1953). The R.A.O.U. campout in central Australia. Emu 53, 169-185.

JOHNS, A. D. (1981). Observations on nesting behaviour in the rhinoceros hornbill, Buceros rhinoceros. Malayan Nature Journal 35, 173-177.

JOHNS, A. D. (1987). The use of primary and selectively logged forest by Malaysian hornbills (Bucerotidae) and implications for their conservation. Biological Conservation 40, 179-190.

JOHNSGARD, P. A. (1999). The Pheasants of the World. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C., USA.

JONES, D. N., DEKKER, R. W. R. J., ROSELAAR, C. S. & PERLO, B. V. (1995). The Megapodes. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK

JONES JR, J. K., CHOATE, J. R. & CADENA, A. (1972). Mammals from the Mexican state of Sinaloa. II. Chiroptera. Occasional Papers of the Museum of Natural History, University of Kansas 6, 1-29.

JORDANO, P. (1983). Fig-seed predation and dispersal by birds. Biotropica 15, 38-54.

JOSHI, A. R., GARSHELIS, D. L. & SMITH, J. L. D. (1997). Seasonal and habitat-related diets of sloth bears in Nepal. Journal of Mammalogy 78, 584-597.

JOSHI, A. R., SMITH, J. L. D. & CUTHBERT, F. J. (1995). Influence of food distribution and predation pressure on spacing behaviour in palm civets. Journal of Mammalogy 76, 1205-1212.

JULIEN-LAFERRIERE, D. (1993). Radiotracking observations on ranging and foraging patterns by kinkajous (Potos flavus) in French Guiana. Journal of Tropical Ecology 9, 19-32.

JUNIPER, T. & PARR, M. (1998). Parrots. A Guide to the Parrots of the World. Pica Press, Sussex, UK.

KALINA, J. (1988). Ecology and behaviour of the Black-and-white Casqued Hornbill (Bycanistes subcylindricus) in Kibale Forest, Uganda. Ph.D. thesis., Michigan State University, USA.

KALKO, E. K. V. (1997). Diversity in tropical bats. In Tropical Biodiversity and Systematics (ed. H. Ulrich), pp. 13-43. Zool Forschungsinstitut und Museum Alexander Koenig, Bonn, Germany.

KALKO, E. K. V., HERRE, E. A. & HANDLEY, C. O. J. (1996). Relation of fig fruit characteristics to fruit-eating bats in the New and Old World tropics. Journal of Biogeography 23, 565-576.

KANG, N. (1992). Radiotelemetry in an urban environment: a study of mynas (Acridotheres spp.) in Singapore. In Wildlife Telemetry. Remote monitoring and tracking of animals (ed. I. G. Priede and S. M. Swift), pp. 179-232. Ellis Horwood, Chichester, UK.

KANNAN, R. (1994). Ecology and conservation of the Great Pied Hornbill in the Western Ghats of Southern India. Ph.D. thesis, University of Arkansas, USA.

KANTAK, G. E. (1979). Observation on some fruit-eating birds in Mexico. Auk 96, 183-186.

KAPLIN, B. A., MUNYYALIGOGA, V., MOERMOND, T. C. (1998). The influence of temporal changes in fruit availability on diet composition and seed handling in blue monkeys (Cercopithecus mitis doggetti). Biotropica 30, 56-71.

KAPPELER, M. (1984). Diet and feeding behaviour of the Moloch Gibbon. . In The Lesser Apes. Evolutionary and Behavioural Biology (ed. H. Preuschoft, D. J. Chivers, W. Y. Brockelman and N. Creel), pp. 242-257. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh, UK.

KAUFMANN, J. H. (1983). Nasua narica (Pizote, Coati). In Costa Rican Natural History (ed. D. H. Janzen), pp. 478-480. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, USA.

KAUFMANN, S., MCKEY, D. B., HOSSAERT-MCKEY, M., HORVITZ, C. C. (1991). Adaptations for a two-phase seed dispersal system involving vertebrates and ants in a hemi-epiphytic fig (Ficus microcarpa, Moraceae). American Journal of Botany 78, 971-977.

KAUTH, M., ENGEL, S., LASTIMOZA, L. L. & CURIO, E. (1998). Observations on the breeding biology of the Writhed-billed Hornbill (Aceros waldeni) in the Philippines. Journal of Ornithology 139, 475-483.

KAWAMICHI, T. & KAWAMICHI, M. (1979). Spatial organisation and territoriality of tree shrews (Tupaia glis). Animal Behaviour 27, 381-393.

KAYS, R. W. (1999). Food preferences of kinkajous (Potos flavus): a frugivorous carnivore. Journal of Mammalogy 80, 589-599.

KEITH, S., URBAN, E. K. & FRY, C. H. (1992). The Birds of Africa. Volume IV. Academic Press, London, UK.

KEMP, A. (1995). The Hornbills. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.

KILNER, T. (2000). The behaviour and ecology of the Buton Macaque Macaca brunnescens. M.Sc thesis. Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, UK.

KINGDON, J. (1971). East African Mammals. An Atlas of Evolution in Africa. Volume 1. Academic Press, London, UK.

KINGDON, J. (1974). East African Mammals. An Atlas of Evolution in Africa. Volume II Part A (Insectivores and Bats). Academic Press, London, UK.

KINGDON, J. (1977). East African Mammals. An Atlas of Evolution in Africa. Volume III Part A (Carnivores). Academic Press, London, UK.

KINGDON, J. (1979). East African Mammals. An Atlas of Evolution in Africa. Volume III Part B (Large Mammals). Academic Press, London, UK.

KINNAIRD, M. F. & O’BRIEN, T. G. (1993). Preliminary observation on the breeding ecology of the endemic Sulawesi Red-knobbed Hornbill. Tropical Biodiversity 1, 107-112.

KINNAIRD, M. F. & O’BRIEN, T. G. (1999). Breeding ecology of the Sulawesi Red Knobbed Hornbill Aceros cassidix. Ibis 141, 60-69.

KINNAIRD M. F., O’BRIEN, T. G. & SURYADI, S. (1996). Population fluctuation in Sulawesi Red-knobbed Hornbill Aceros cassidix: tracking figs in space and time. Auk 113, 431-440.

KINNAIRD M. F., O’BRIEN, T. G. & SURYADI, S. (1999). The importance of figs to Sulawesi’s imperiled wildlife. Tropical Biodiversity 6, 5-18.

KITAMURA, S. (2000). Seed dispersal by hornbills in a tropical rain forest in Khao Yai National Park, Thailand. M.Sc. thesis, Graduate School of Science. Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.

KLEIN, L. L. & KLEIN, D. B. (1977). Feeding behaviour of the Columbian Spider Monkey Ateles belzebuth. In Primate Ecology: Studies of Feeding and Ranging Behaviour in Lemurs, Monkeys and Apes (ed. T. H. Clutton-Brock), pp. 153-141. Academic Press, London, UK.

KO, I. W. P., CORLETT, R. T. & XU, R-J. (1998). Sugar composition of wild fruits in Hong Kong, China. Journal of Tropical Ecology 14, 381-387.

KOFORD, C. B. (1983). Felis wiedii (Tigrillo, Caucel, Margay). In Costa Rican Natural History (ed. D. H. Janzen), pp. 471-472. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, USA.

KOHLHAAS, A. K. (1993). Behaviour and Ecology of Macaca nigrescens: Behavioural and Social Responses to the Environment and Fruit Availability. Ph.D. thesis, University of Colorado, USA.

KORINE, C., IZHAKI, I. & ARAD, Z. (1999). Is the Egyptian fruit-bat Rousettus aegyptiacus a pest in Israel? An analysis of the bats’ diet and implications for its conservation. Biological Conservation 88, 301-306.

KORINE, C., KALKO, E. K. V. & HERRE, E. A. (2000). Fruit characteristics and factors affecting fruit removal in a Panamanian community of strangler figs. Oecologia 123, 560-568.

KREFTING, L. W. & ROE, E. I. (1949). The role of some birds and mammals in seed germination. Ecological Monographs 19, 269-286.

LAMAN, T. G. (1994). The ecology of strangler figs (hemiepiphytic Ficus spp.) in the rain forest canopy of Borneo. Ph.D. thesis., Harvard University, Ann Arbor, USA.

LAMAN, T. G. (1995). Ficus stupenda germination and seedling establishment in a Bornean rain forest canopy. Ecology 76, 2617-2626.

LAMAN, T. G. (1996). The impact of seed harvesting ants (Pheidole sp. nov) on Ficus establishment in the canopy. Biotropica 28:777-781.

LAMAN, T. G. (1997). Borneo’s strangler fig trees. National Geographic 191, 38-55.

LAMBERT, F. R. (1987). Forest fig phenology and avian frugivores in Malaysia. Ph.D thesis., University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK.

LAMBERT, F. R. (1989a). Daily ranging behaviour of three tropical forest frugivores. Forktail 4, 107-116.

LAMBERT, F. R. (1989b). Fig-eating by birds in a Malaysian lowland forest. Journal of Tropical Ecology 5, 401-412.

LAMBERT, F. R. (1989c). Pigeons as seed predators and dispersers of figs in a Malaysian lowland forest. Ibis 131, 521-527.

LAMBERT, F. R. (1990). Some notes on fig-eating by arboreal mammals in Malaysia. Primates 31, 453-458.

LAMBERT, F. R. (1991). The conservation of fig-eating birds in Malaysia. Biological Conservation 58, 31-40.

LAMBERT, F. R. & MARSHALL, A. G. (1991). Keystone characteristics of bird-dispersed Ficus in a Malaysian lowland rain forest. Journal of Ecology 79, 793-809.

LAMBERT, F. & WOODCOCK, M. (1996). Pittas, Broadbills and Asities. Pica Press, East Sussex, UK.

LAMONT, D. A. (1997). Unpublished M.Sc. Thesis. University of New England, Armidale, NSW.

LANGRAND, O. (1990). Guide to the birds of Madagascar. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.

LEFRANC, N. & WORFDK, T. (1997). Shrikes. A guide to the shrikes of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.

LEIGHTON, D. R. (1987). Gibbons: territoriality and monogamy. In Primate Societies (ed. B. S. Smuts, D. L. Cheney, R. M. Seyfarth, R. W. Wrangham and T. T. Struhsaker), pp. 135-145. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, USA.

LEIGHTON, M. (1982). Fruit resources and patterns of feeding, spacing and grouping among sympatric Bornean hornbills (Bucerotidae). Ph.D. thesis, University of California, Davis, USA.

LEIGHTON, M. (1986). Hornbill social dispersion: variations on a monogamous theme. In Ecological Aspects of Social Evolution. Birds and Mammals (ed. D. I. Rubenstein and R. W. Wrangham), pp. 108-130. Princeton University Press, New Jersey, USA.

LEIGHTON, M. (1993). Modeling dietary selectivity by Bornean orangutans: evidence for integration of multiple criteria in fruit selection. International Journal of Primatology 14, 257-313.

LEIGHTON, M. & LEIGHTON, D. R. (1983). Vertebrate responses to fruiting seasonality within a Bornean rain forest. In Tropical Rain Forest: Ecology and Management (ed. S. L. Sutton, T. C. Whitmore, and A. C. Chadwick), pp. 181-196. Blackwell, Oxford, UK.

LENDON, A. H. (1973). Neville W. Cayley’s Australian Parrots in Field and Aviary. Angus and Robertson, Sydney, Australia.

LEPSCHI, B. J. (1997). Food of some birds in southern Australia: Additions to Barker and Vestjens. 2. Emu 97, 84-87.

LI, G., ZHENG, B. & LIU, G. (1982). Fauna Sinica, Aves Vol. 13, Passeriformes: Paridae-Zosteropidae. Science Press, Beijing, China.

LIEBERMAN, D., HALL, J. B., SWAINE, M. D. & LIEBERMAN, M. (1979). Seed dispersal by baboons in the Shai Hills, Ghana. Ecology 60, 65-75.

LIU, W. (1996). Wildlife Resources of Tibet Series (1): Musk and Bear. China Forestry Publishing House, Beijing, China.

LONG, M. E. (1999). The shrinking world of hornbills. National Geographic 196, 52-71.

LORD, E. A. R. (1956). Birds of the Murphy’s Creek district, Queensland. Emu 56, 100-128.

LU, T. C. (1991). The Rare and Endangered Gamebirds in China. Fujian Science and Technology Press, Fuzhou, China.

LU, T. C. & CHANG, W. F. (1993). Rare and endangered Galliformes of China. Chung Thai Science and Technology Press, Taipei, Taiwan.

MACK, A. L. & WRIGHT, D. D. (1996). Notes on the occurence and feeding of birds at Crater Mountain Biological Research Station, Papua New Guinea. Emu 96, 89-101.

MACK, A. L. & WRIGHT, D. D. (1998). The vulturine parrot, Psittrichas fulgidus, a threatened New Guinea endemic: notes on its biology and conservation. Bird Conservation International 8, 185-194.

MADGE, S. & BURN, H. (1994). Crows and Jays. A Guide to the Crows, Jays and Magpies of the World. Christopher Helm, London, UK.

MAJNEP, I. S. & BULMER, R. (1990). Kalam hunting traditions. Working Papers in Anthropology, Archaeology, Archaeology, Linguistics and Maori Studies No 86-91. University of Aukland, Aukland, New Zealand.

MARCONDES-MACHADO, L. O., PARANHOS, S. J. &, DE MELOS BARROS, Y. (1994). Estrategias almentares de aves na utilizacao de frutos fe Ficus microcarpa (Moraceas) em uma area Antropica. Iheringia 77, 57-62.

MARINHO-FILHO, J. S. (1991). The coexistence of two frugivorous bat species and the phenology of their food plants in Brazil. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 7, 59-67.

MARSHALL, A. G. (1985). Old World phytophagous bats (Megachiroptera) and their food plants: a survey. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 83, 351-369.

MARTINS, M. M. & SETZ, E. Z. F. (2000). Diet of buffy tufted-eared marmosets (Callithrix aurita) in a forest fragment in southeastern Brazil. International Journal of Primatology 21, 467-476.

MASON, C. W. & MAXWELL-LEFROY, H. (1912). The food of birds in India. Memoir of the Department of Agriculture, India 3, 1-137.

MAWDSLEY, N. A., COMPTON, S. G., WHITTAKER, R. J. (1998). Population persistence, pollination mutualisms, and figs in fragmented tropical landscapes. Conservation Biology 12, 1416-1420.

MCCANN, C. (1934). Notes on the flying fox (Pteropus giganteus Brunn). Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 37, 143-149.

MCCLURE, H. E. (1966). Flowering, fruiting and animals in the canopy of a tropical rain forest. Malaysian Forester 29, 192-203.

MCCONKEY, K. R. (1999). Gibbons as seed dispersers in the rain-forests of central Borneo. Ph.D. thesis, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

MCCONKEY, K. & GALETTI, M. (1999). Seed dispersal by the sun bear Helarctos malayanus in Central Borneo. Journal of Tropical Ecology 15, 237-241.

MCDADE, L. A., BAWA, K. S., HESPENHEIDE, H. A., HARTSHORN, G. S. (1994). La Selva: Ecology and Natural History of a Neotropical Rain Forest. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, USA.

MCFARLAND-SYMINGTON, M. (1988). Food competition and foraging party size in the Black Spider Monkey (Ateles paniscus Chamek). Behaviour 105, 117-134.

MCGILP, J. N. (1944). Bird life west of Oodnadatta, South Australia. South Australian Ornithologist 17, 1-8.

MCGREGOR, R. C. (1909). A manual of Philippine birds. Galliformes to Eurylaimiformes. Bureau of Printing, Manila, Philippines.

MCKEY, D. (1975). The ecology of coevolved seed dispersal systems. In Coevolution of Animals and Plants (ed. L. E. Gilbert and P. H. Raven), pp. 159-191. University of Texas Press, Austin, USA.

MCLENNON, W. (1917). Northern Australian birds. Emu 16, 205-231.

MEDELLÍN, R. A. (1994). Seed dispersal of Cecropia obtusifolia by two species of opossums in the Selva Lacandona, Chiapas, Mexico. Biotropica 26, 400-407.

MEDWAY, LORD. (1972). Phenology of a tropical forest in Malaysia. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 4, 117-146.

MEIJER, W. (1969). Fruit trees in Sabah. Malayan Forester 32, 232-265.

MEINERTZHAGEN, R. (1954). Birds of Arabia. Oliver & Boyd, Edinburgh, UK.

MENON, S. A. (1993). Ecology and Conservation of the Endangered Lion-tailed Macaque (Macaca silenus) in the Landscapes Mosaic of the Western Ghats. Ph.D. thesis, Ohio State University, USA.

MENZIES, J. I. & PERNETTA, J. C. (1986). A taxonomic revision of cuscuses allied to Phalanger orientalis (Marsupialia: Phalangeridae). Journal of Zoology (London) (B) 1, 551-618.

MERCHANT, J. C. (1983). Agile Wallaby. In The Australian Museum Complete Book of Australian Mammals (ed. R. Strahan), pp. 242-243. Angus & Robertson, Sydney, Australia.

MERRITT, P. G. (1980). Group foraging by Mockingbirds in a Florida strangler fig. Auk 97, 869-872.

MICHALOUD, G., CARRIERE, S., KOOBI, M. (1996). Exceptions to the one:one relationship between African fig trees and their fig wasp pollinators: possible evolutionary scenarios. Journal of Biogeography 23, 513-520.

MICKLEBURGH, S. P., HUTSON, A. M. & RACEY, P. A. (1992). Old World Fruit Bats: An Action Plan for their Conservation. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.

MIDYA, S. & BRAHMACHARY, R. L. (1991). The effect of birds upon the germination of banyan (Ficus bengalensis) seeds. Journal of Tropical Ecology 7, 537-538.

MILLIKEN, W. & RATTER, J. A. (1998). Maraca: the biodiversity and environment of an Amazonian rainforest. John Wiley and Sons, Chichester, UK.

MILTON, K. (1980). The foraging strategy of howler monkeys. Columbia University Press, New York, USA.

MILTON, K. (1981). Food choice and digestive strategies of two symatric primate species. American Naturalist 117, 496-505.

MILTON, K. & MAY, M. L. (1976). Body weight, diet and home range area in primates. Nature 259, 459-462.

MILTON, K., WINDSOR, D. M., MORRISON, D. W. & ESTRIBI, M. (1982). Fruiting phenologies of two neotropical Ficus species. Ecology 63, 752-762.

MITCHELL, A. H. (1994). Ecology of Hose’s Langur, Presbytis hosei, in Mixed Logged and Unlogged Dipterocarp Forest of Northeast Borneo. Ph.D. thesis, Yale University, New Haven, USA.

MOLL, D. & JANSEN, K. P. (1995). Evidence for a role in seed dispersal by two tropical herbivorous turtles. Biotropica 27, 121-127.

MONDOLFI, E. (1989). Notes on the distribution, habitat, food habits, status and conservation of spectacled bears (Tremarctos ornatus Cuvier) in Venezuela. Mammalia 53, 525-544.

MOORE, J. (1994). Plants of the Tongue East Forest Reserve (Ugalla) Tanzania. Tropics 3, 333-340.

MORRISON, D. W. (1978). Foraging ecology and energetics of the frugivorous bat Artibeus jamaicensis. Ecology 59, 716-723.

MOUTSAMBOTE, J-M., YUMOTO, T., MITANI, M., NISHIHARA, T., SUZUKI, S. & KURODA, S. (1994). Vegetation and list of plant species identified in the Nouabale-Ndoki Forest, Congo. Tropics 3, 277-293.

MOSKOVITS, D. (1998). Population ecology of the tortoises Geochelone carbonaria and G. denticulata on the Ilha de Maracà. In Maracà. The Biodiversity and Environment of an Amazonian Rainforest (ed. W. Milliken and J. A. Ratter), pp. 263-284. John Wiley & Sons Ltd., Chichester, UK.

MTURI, F. A. (1993). Ecology of the Zanzibar red colobus monkey, Colubus badius kirkii, in comparison with other red colobines. In Biogeography & Ecology of the Rain Forests of East Africa (ed. J. C. Lovett and S. K. Wasser), pp. 243-266. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

NARANJO, E. (1995). Habitos de alimentacion del tapir (Tapirus bairdii) en un bosque tropical humedo de Costa Rica. Vida Silvestre Neotropical 4, 32-37.

NASON, J. D., HERRE, E. A. & HAMRICK, J. L. (1996). Paternity analysis of the breeding structure of strangler fig populations: evidence for substanstial long-distance wasp dispersal. Journal of Biogeography 23, 501-512.

NASON, J. D., HERRE, E. A. & HAMRICK, J. L. (1998). The breeding structure of a tropical keystone resource. Nature 391, 685-687.

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL (1983). Little-known Asian Animals with a Promising Economic Future. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., USA

NEWNHAM, A. (1911). Hornbills devouring young paroquets. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 21, 263-264.

NEWTON-FISHER, N. E. (1999). The diet of chimpanzees in the Budongo Forest Reserve, Uganda. African Journal of Ecology 37, 344-354.

NHAT, P. (1994). Preliminary results on the diet of the red-shanked douc langur (Pygathrix nemaeus). Asian Primates 4, 1.

NOGALES, M., HERNÁNDEZ, E. C. & VALDÉS, F. (1999). Seed dispersal by common ravens Corvus corax among island habitats (Canarian Archipelago). Ecoscience 6, 56-61.

NORTON, J. (1897). Magpies (Black and Grey). Agricultural Gazette of New South Wales 8, 535-537.

NOVAK, R. M. & PARADISO, J. L. (1983). Walker’s Mammals of the World. 4th Edition. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA.

OATES, J. F. (1977). The Guereza and its food. In Primate Ecology: Studies of Feeding and Ranging Behaviour in Lemurs, Monkeys and Apes. (ed. T. H. Clutton-Brock), pp. 276-321. Academic Press, London, UK.

O’BRIEN, T. G., KINNAIRD, M. F., DIERENFELD, E. S., CONKLIN-BRITTAIN, N. L., WRANGHAM, R. W. & SILVER, S. C. (1998a). What’s so special about figs? Nature 392, 668.

O’BRIEN, T., KINNAIRD, M. F., JEPSON, P. & SETIAWAN, I. (1998b). Effect of forest size and structure on the distribution of Sumba Wreathed Hornbills Aceros everetti. In The Asian Hornbills: Ecology and Conservation (ed. P. Poonswad), pp. 209-217. Biodiversity Research and Training Program, National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Bangkok, Thailand.

OKON, E. E. (1977). Functional anatomy of the alimentary canal in the fruit bat Eidolon helvum and the insect bat Tadarida nigeriae. Acta Zoologica 58, 83-93.

OLSON, S. L. & BLUM, K. E. (1968). Avian dispersal of plants in Panama. Ecology 49, 565-566.

OLUPOT, W, WASER, P. M. & CHAPMAN, C. A. (1998). Fruit finding by mangabeys (Lophocebus albigena): Are monitoring of fig trees and use of sympatric frugivore calls possible strategies? International Journal of Primatology 19, 339-353.

OPPENHEIMER, J. R. (1982). Cebus capucinus: Home range, population dynamics, and interspecific relationships. In The Ecology of a Tropical Forest. Seasonal Rhythms and Long-term Changes.(ed. E. G. Leigh Jr, A. S. Rand and D. M. Windsor), pp. 253-272. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C., USA.

ORTIZ-PULIDO, R., LABORDE, J. & GUEVARA, S. (2000). Frugivoria por aves en un paisaje fragmentado: consecuencias en la dispersion de semillas. Biotropica 32, 473-488.

OSMASTON, H. A. (1965). Pollen and seed dispersal in Chlorophora excelsa and other Moraceae, and in Parkia filicoidea (Mimosaceae), with special reference to the role of the fruit bat, Eidolon helvum. Commonwealth Forestry Review 44, 96-103.

OTANI, T. & SHIBATA, E. (2000). Seed dispersal and predation by Yakushima macaques, Macaca fuscata yakui, in a warm temperate forest of Yakushima Island, southern Japan. Ecological Research 15, 133-144.

PALMER, C., PRICE, O. & BACH, C. (2000). Foraging ecology of the black flying fox (Pteropus alecto) in the seasonal tropics of the Northern Territory, Australia. Wildlife Research 27, 169-178.

PALMEIRIM, J. M., GORCHOV, D. L. & STOLESON, S. (1989). Trophic structure of a Neotropical frugivore community: Is there competition between birds and bats? Oecologia 79, 403-411.

PALOMBIT, R. A. (1997). Inter- and intraspecific variation in the diets of sympatric siamang (Hylobates syndactylus) and lar gibbons (Hylobates lar). Folia Primatologica 68, 321-337.

PANG, Y., YOUNG, T. & KANG, B. (1980). Yunnan Niaolei Minglu. Yunnan Scientific Press, Yunnan, China.

PASCHOAL, M. & GALETTI, M. (1995). Seasonal food use by the neotropical ground squirrel Sciurus ingrami in southeastern Brazil. Biotropica 27, 268-273.

PATEL, A. (1996). Variation in a mutualism: phenology and the maintenance gynodioecy in two Indian fig species. Journal of Ecology 84, 667-680.

PATEL, A. (1997). Phenological patterns of Ficus in relation to other forest trees in southern India. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 13, 681-695.

PAYNE, J. B. (1979). Synecology of Malayan tree squirrels with special reference to the genus Ratufa. Ph.D. thesis, Cambridge University, Cambridge, UK.

PAYNE, J., FRANCIS, C. M. & PHILLIPPS, K. (1985). A Field Guide to the Mammals of Borneo. The Sabah Society & WWF Malaysia, Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia.

PERES, C. A. (1993). Diet and feeding ecology of saddle-back (Saguinus fuscicollis) and moustached (Saguinus mystax) tamarins in an Amazonian terra firme forest. Journal of Zoology 230, 567-592.

PERRINS, C. M. (1990). The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Birds. Headline Book Publishing plc., London, UK.

PETERS, C. R., O’BRIEN, E. M. & DRUMMOND, R. B. (1992). Edible Wild Plants of Sub-Saharan Africa. Royal Botanical Gardens, Kew, London, UK.

PHILLIPS, J. F. V. (1928). Turacos Corythaix corythaix (“Lourie”) in the Knysna forests. South African Journal of Science 25, 295-299.

POONSWAD, P., TSUJI, A. & NGARMPONGSAI, C. (1988). A comparative ecological study of four sympatric hornbills (Family Bucerotidae) in Thailand. Acta XIX congressus Internationalis Ornithologi 2, 2781-2791.

POONSWAD, P., CHUAILUA, P., PLONGMAI, K. & NAKKUNTOD, S. (1998a). Phenology of some Ficus species and utilisation of Ficus sources in Khao Yai National Park, Thailand. In The Asian Hornbills: Ecology and Conservation (ed. P. Poonswad), pp. 227-252. Biodiversity Research and Training Program, National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Bangkok, Thailand.

POONSWAD, P. & TSUJI, A. (1994). Ranges of males of the Great Hornbill Buceros bicornis, Brown Hornbill Ptilolaemus tickelli and Wreathed Hornbill Rhyticeros undulatus in Khao Yai National Park, Thailand. Ibis 136, 79-86.

POONSWAD, P., TSUJI, A., JIRAWATKAVI, N. & CHIMCHOME, V. (1998b). Some aspects of food and feeding ecology of sympatric hornbill species in Khao Yai National Park, Thailand. In The Asian Hornbills: Ecology and Conservation (ed. P. Poonswad), pp. 137-153. Biodiversity Research and Training Program, National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Bangkok, Thailand.

POWER, M. E., TILMAN, D., ESTES, J. A., MENGE, B. A., BOND, W. J., MILLS, L. S., DAILY, G., CASTILLA, J. C., LUBCHENCO, J. & PAINE, R. T. (1996). Challenges in the quest for keystones. Bioscience 46, 609-620.

PRATT, T. K. & STILES, E. W. (1985). The influence of fruit size and structure on the compostion of frugivore assemblages in New Guinea. Biotropica 17, 314-321.

PRICE, M. V. & JENKINS, S. H. (1986). Rodents as seed consumers and dispersers. In Seed Dispersal (ed. D. R. Murray), pp. 191-235. Academic Press, Sydney, Australia.

PROCTOR, V. W. (1968). Long-distance dispersal of seeds by retention in the digestive tract of birds. Science 160, 321-322.

PUTZ, F. E. & APPANAH, S. (1987). Buried seeds, dispersed seeds, and the dynamics of a lowland forest in Malaysia. Biotropica 19, 326-333.

QURIS, R. (1975). Ecologie et organisation sociale de Cercopithecus galeritus agilis dans le Nord-Est du Gabon. Thesis de 3° cycle, Universite de Rennes, Rennes, France.

RABINOWITZ, A. R. (1991). Behaviour and movements of sympatric civet species in Huai Kha Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuary, Thailand. Journal of Zoology 223, 281-298.

RACEY, P. A. & NICOLL, M. E. (1984). Mammals. In Biogeography and ecology of the Seychelles Islands (ed. D. R. Stoddart), pp. 361-364. Junk Press, Leiden, Netherlands.

RAEMAEKERS, J. (1984). Large versus small gibbons: relative roles of bioenergetics and competition in their ecological segregation in sympatry. In The Lesser Apes. Evolutionary and Behavioural Biology (ed. H. Preuschoft, D. J. Chivers, W. Y. Brockelman and N. Creel), pp. 209-218. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh, UK

RAFFAELE, H., WILEY, J., GARRIDO, O., KEITH, A. & RAFFAELE, J. (1998). Bird of the West Indies. Christopher Helm, London, UK.

RANGER, G. (1950). Life of the crowned hornbill. Ostrich 21, 2-13.

RATCLIFFE, F. N. (1932). Notes on the fruit bats (Pteropus spp.) of Australia. Journal of Animal Ecology 1, 32-57.

REMSEN, J. V, HYDE, M. A. & CHAPMAN, A. (1993). The diets of neotropical trogons, motmots, barbets and toucans. Condor 95, 178-192.

REYNOLDS, V. & REYNOLDS, F. (1965). Chimpanzees of the Budongo Forest. In Primate Behaviour. Field Studies of Monkeys and Apes (ed. I. De Vore), pp. 368-424. Holt, Reinhart and Winston, New York, USA.

RIDLEY, H. N. (1930). The Dispersal of Plants Throughout the World. L. Reeve & Co., Kent, UK.

ROBBINS, M. (1993). Birds of the World. Dorling Kindersley, New York, USA.

ROBERTS, J. T. & HEITHAUS, E. R. (1986). Ants rearrange the vertebrate-generated seed shadow of a neotropical fig tree. Ecology 67, 1046-1051.

ROBERTS, T. J. (1992a). The Birds of Pakistan, Vol. 1. Regional Studies and Non-Passeriformes. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.

ROBERTS, T. J. (1992b). The Birds of Pakistan, Vol. 2. Passeriformes, Pittas to Buntings. Oxford University Press

ROBINET, O., BARRE, N. & SALAS, M. (1996). Population estimate for the Ouvea parakeet Eunymphicus cornutus uvaeensis: its present range and implications for conservation. Emu 96, 151-157.

ROGERS, M. E., MAISELS, F., WILLIAMSON, E. A., FERNANDEZ, M., TUTIN, C. E. G. (1990). Gorilla diet in the Lope Reserve, Gabon: A nutritional analysis. Oecologia 84, 326-339.

ROMO, M. C. (1996). Seasonal variation in fruit consumption and seed dispersal by canopy bats (Artibeus spp.) in a lowland forest in Peru. Vida Silvestre Neotropical 5, 110-119.

ROSE, A. B. (1973). Food of some Australian birds. Emu 73, 177-183.

RUSSELL, J. K. (1982). Timing of reproduction by coatis (Nasua narica) in relation to fluctuations in food resources. In The Ecology of a Tropical Forest. Seasonal Rhythms and Long-term Changes.(ed. E. G. Leigh Jr, A. S. Rand and D. M. Windsor), pp. 413-431. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C., USA.

SALAS, L. A. & FULLER, T. K. (1996). Diet of the lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris L.) in the Tabaro Valley, southern Venezuela. Canadian Journal of Zoology 74, 1444-1451.

SÁNCHEZ-CORDERO, V. & MARTINEZ-GALLARDO, R. (1998). Postdispersal fruit and seed removal by forest-dwelling rodents in a lowland rainforest in Mexico. Journal of Tropical Ecology 14, 139-151.

SANTAMARIA, M. & FRANCO, A. M. (2000). Frugivory of Salvin’s Currasow in a rainforest fragment of the Colombian Amazon. Wilson Bulletin 112, 473-481.

SAUNDERS, C. R. (1985). Interactions between Grey and Purple-crested Louries. Honeyguide 31, 108.

SCHIPPER, C., SHANAHAN, M., COOK, S. & THORNTON, I. W. B. (in press). Colonisation of an exploded island, Long I, Papua New Guinea, and an emergent island, Motmot, in its caldera lake. III. Birds. Journal of Biogeography

SCHLEGEL, H. & MULLER, S. (1845). Over drie buideldieren uit de familie der Kengeroe’s. In Verhandelingen over de Natuurlijke over de Geschiedenis de Nederlandsche Overzeesche Bezittingen door de Leden natuurkundige commissie in India andore Schrijvers (ed. C. J. Temminck), pp. 129-148. Leiden, Netherlands.

SCHOLTZ, C. H. (1972). Grey hornbill (R424) feeding on peanuts. Lanarius 3, 3.

SCHOMBURGK, R. (1848). Reisen in Britisch-Guiana in dem Jahren 1840-1844. Part 3. J. J. Weber, Leipzig, Germany.

SCHULZ, J. (1999). Fruit-eating birds and mammals of Pacific islands. Unpublished B.Sc. thesis, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK.

SCHUPP, E. W. (1993). Quantity, quality and the effectiveness of seed dispersal by animals. Vegetatio 107/108, 15-29.

SCOTT, E. & MARTIN, R. F. (1984). Avian consumers of Bursera, Ficus and Ehretia fruits in Yucatan. Biotropica 16, 319-323.

SHANAHAN, M. (2000). Ficus seed dispersal guilds: ecology, evolution and conservation implications. Ph.D. thesis. University of Leeds, UK.

SHANAHAN, M. & COMPTON, S. G. (2000). Fig-eating by Bornean treeshrews (Tupaia spp.): evidence for a role as seed dispersers. Biotropica 32, 759-764.

SHANAHAN, M. & COMPTON, S. G. (in press). Vertical stratification of figs and fig-eaters in a Bornean lowland rainforest: how is the canopy different? Plant Ecology

SHANAHAN, M. & DEBSKI, I. (in press). Vertebrates of Lambir Hills National Park, Sarawak, Malayan Nature Journal

SHANAHAN, M., HARRISON, R. D., YAMUNA, R., THORNTON, I .W. B. (in press). Colonisation of an exploded island, Long I, Papua New Guinea, and an emergent island, Motmot, in its caldera lake. V. Colonisation by figs (Ficus species), their dispersers and pollinators. Journal of Biogeography

SHILTON, L. A. (1999). Seed dispersal by fruit bats on the Krakatau Islands, Indonesia. Ph.D. thesis, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK.

SHILTON, L. A., ALTRINGHAM, J. D., COMPTON, S. G. & WHITTAKER, R. J. (1999). Old World fruit bats can be long-distance seed dispersers through extended retention of viable seeds in the gut. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B 266, 219-233.

SIBLEY, C. G. & MONROE JR, B. L. (1990). Distribution and Taxonomy of Birds of the World. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.

SIBLEY, C. G. & MONROE JR, B. L. (1993). A Supplement to Distribution and Taxonomy of Birds of the World. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.

SKINNER, J. D. & SMITHERS, R. H. N. (1990). The Mammals of the Southern African Subregion. University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa.

SMITH, C. C. (1977). Feeding behaviour and social organisation in howling monkeys. In Primate Ecology: Studies of Feeding and Ranging Behaviour in Lemurs, Monkeys and Apes (ed. T. H. Clutton-Brock), pp. 97-126.. Academic Press, London, UK.

SMITH, D. S. & HOOD, C. S. (1981). Preliminary notes on bats from the Bismarck Archipelago (Mammalia: Chiroptera). Science in New Guinea 8, 81-121.

SMYTHIES, B. E. (1960). Birds of Borneo. Oliver & Boyd Ltd, Edinburgh, UK.

SNOW, D. W. (1980). Regional differences between tropical floras and the evolution of frugivory. Acta XVII Congressus Internationalis Ornithologi 1, 1185-1191.

SNOW, D. (1982). The Cotingas. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.

SNOW, B. K. & SNOW, D. W. (1971). The feeding ecology of tanagers and honeycreepers in Trinidad. Auk 88, 291-322.

SO, N. H. S. (1999). Birds and figs in Hong Kong. M. Phil thesis. The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.

SOLORZANO, S., CASTILLO, S., VALVERDE, T. & AVILA, L. (2000). Quetzal abundance in relation to fruit availability in a cloud forest in Southeastern Mexico. Biotropica 32, 523-532.

SOUTHWICK, C. H., BEG, M. A. & SIDDIQI, M. R. (1965). Rhesus monkeys in North India. In Primate Behaviour. Field Studies of Monkeys and Apes (ed. I. DeVore), pp. 111-159

SOWLS, L. K. (1983). Tayassu tajacu (Saino, Collared Peccary). In Costa Rican Natural History (ed. D. H. Janzen), pp. 497-498. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, USA.

SPENCER, H. J. & FLEMING, T. H. (1989). Roosting and foraging behaviour of the Queensland Tube-nosed bat, Nyctimene robinsoni (Pteropodidae): Preliminary radio-tracking observations. Australian Wildlife Research 16, 413-420.

SPENCER, H., WEIBLEN, G. & FLICK, B. (1996). Phenology of Ficus variegata in a seasonal wet tropical forest at Cape Tribulation, Australia. Journal of Biogeography 23, 467-475.

SRIKOSAMATARA, S. (1984). Ecology of Pileated Gibbons in South-East Thailand. In The Lesser Apes. Evolutionary and Behavioural Biology (ed. H. Preuschoft, D. J. Chivers, W. Y. Brockelman and N. Creel), pp. 242-257. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh, UK.

STADDON, S. (2000). Seed dispersal in the Pacific Banyan Ficus prolixa: the effectiveness of frugivores as dispersal agents and the importance of seed disperser mutualisms. M.Sc. thesis, Leeds, UK.

START, A.N. & FULLER, P. J. (1983). Birds. Wildlife Research Bulletin, Western Australia 12, 94-108.

STEVENSON, P. R., QUINONES, M. J. & AHUMADA, J. A. (1998). Annual variation in fruiting pattern using two different methods in a lowland tropical forest, Tinigua National Park, Colombia. Biotropica 30, 129-134.

STEVENSON, P. R., QUINONES, M. J., AHUMADA, J. A. (2000). Influence of fruit availability on ecological overlap among four Neotropical primates at Tinigua National Park, Colombia. Biotropica 32, 533-544.

STILES. F. G. & SKUTCH, A. F. (1989). A Guide to the Birds of Costa Rica. Comstock Publishing Associates (Cornell University Press), New York, UK.

STOCKER, G. C. & IRVINE, A. K. (1983). Seed dispersal by cassowaries (Casuarius casuarius) in north Queensland’s rainforest. Biotropica 15, 170-176.

STONES, W. & ROBERTS, H. R. (1935). Zoological results of the Mato Grosso expedition to Brazil in 1931. II Birds. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 86, 363-394.

STOTT, K. (1947). Notes on the Philippine Brown Hornbill. Condor 49, 35.

STRUHSAKER, T. (1997). Ecology of an African Rain Forest: Logging in Kibale and the Conflict between Conservation and Exploitation. University Press of Florida, Gainesville, USA.

SUBRAMANYA, S. & PRASAD, J. N. (1994). Yellow-throated bulbul at Horsley Hills. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 93, 55-58.

SUN, C. & MOERMOND, T. C. (1997). Foraging ecology of three sympatric turacos in a montane forest in Rwanda. The Auk 114, 396-404.

SUSSMAN, R. W. (1975). A preliminary study of the behaviour and ecology of Lemur fulvus rufus Audebret 1860. In Lemur Biology (ed. I. Tattersall and R. W. Sussman), pp. 237-258. Plenum Press, New York, USA.

SUSSMAN, R. W. (1977). Feeding behaviour of Lemur catta and Lemur fulvus. In Primate Ecology: Studies of Feeding and Ranging Behaviour in Lemurs, Monkeys and Apes (ed. T. H. Clutton-Brock), pp. 1-36. Academic Press, London, UK.

TAN, K. H., ZUBAID, A. & KUNZ, T. H. (1998). Food habits of Cynopterus brachyotis (Muller) (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae) in Peninsular Malaysia. Journal of Tropical Ecology 14, 299-307.

TANG, C. (1996). Birds of the Hengduan Mountains Region. Science Press, Beijing, China.

TATARA, M. & DOI, T. (1994). Comparative analyses on food habits of Japanese marten, Siberian weasel and leopard cat in the Tsushima islands, Japan. Ecological Research 9, 99-107.

TAYLOR, H. C. (1978). Capensis. In Biogeography and Ecology of Southern Africa (ed. M. J. A. Werger), pp. 171-229. Junk, The Hague, Netherlands.

TEDMAN, R. A. & HALL, L. S. (1985). The morphology of the gastrointestinal tract and food transit time in the fruit bats Pteropus alecto and P. poliocephalus (Megachiroptera). Australian Journal of Zoology 33, 625-640.

TEMME, M. (1979). Notes on the Violet-backed Starling (Sturnus philippensis) in Manila / Philippines. Ornithologische Mitteilungun Gottingen 31, 86-87.

TERBORGH, J. (1983). Five New World Primates. A Study in Comparative Ecology. Princeton University Press, New Jersey, USA.

TERBORGH, J. (1986). Keystone plant resources in the tropical forest. In Conservation Biology, the Science of Scarcity and Diversity (ed. M. E. Soule), pp. 330-344. Sinauer, Sunderland, MA, USA.

TERBORGH, J. & DIAMOND, J. M. (1970). Niche overlap in feeding assemblages of New Guinea birds. The Wilson Bulletin 82, 29-52.

THOMAS, D. W. (1982). The ecology of an African savanna fruit bat community: Resource partitioning and role in seed dispersal. Ph.D. thesis, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK.

THOMAS, H. F. (1957). The starling in the Sunraysia district, Victoria. Emu 57, 151-180.

THOMPSON, H. & GOODFELLOW, D. (1987). Common Birds of the Darwin Area. Sandpiper, Winnellie, Australia.

THOMSON, D. F. (1935). Birds of Cape York Peninsula. H. J. Green, Melbourne, Australia.

THORNTON, I. W. B., COMPTON, S. G. & WILSON, C. N. (1996). The role of animals in the colonisation of the Krakatau islands by fig trees (Ficus species). Journal of Biogeography 23, 577-592.

TINLEY, K. L. (1969). Dikdik, Madoqua kirkii, in south-west Africa: notes on distribution, ecology and behaviour. Madoqua 1, 7-33.

TRAIL, P. (1994). The phenology of rainforest plants in Tutuila, American Samoa. Unpublished Manuscript. Department of Marine and Wildlife Resources, American Samoa

TRAVESET, A. & WILLSON, M. F. (1997). Effects of birds and bears in seed germination of fleshy fruited plants in temperate rainforests of southeast Alaska. Oikos 80, 89-95.

TSUJI, A. (1996). Hornbills. Masters of Tropical Forests. Sarakadee Press, Bangkok, Thailand.

TUTIN, C. E. G., WHITE, L. J. T., WILLIAMSON, E. A., FERNANDEZ, M. & MCPHERSON, G. (1994). List of plant species identified in the northern part of the Lope Reserve, Gabon. Tropics 3, 249-276.

TUTTLE, M. D. (1970). Distribution and zoogeography of Peruvian bats, with comments on natural history. University of Kansas Science Bulletin 49, 45-86.

UNGAR, P. S. (1995). Fruit preferences of four sympatric primate species at Ketambe, Northern Sumatra, Indonesia. International Journal of Primatology 16, 221-245.

URBAN, E. K., FRY, C. H. & KEITH, S. (1986). The Birds of Africa. Volume II. Academic Press, London, UK.

URBAN, E. K., FRY, C. H. & KEITH, S. (1997). The Birds of Africa. Volume V. Academic Press, London, UK.

UTAMI, S. S., WICH, S. A., STERCK, E. H. M. & VAN HOOFF, J. A. R. A .M. (1997). Food competition between wild orangutans in large fig trees. International Journal of Primatology 18, 909-927.

UTZURRUM, R. B. & HEIDEMAN, P. D. (1991). Differential ingestion of viable vs. non-viable Ficus seeds by fruit bats. Biotropica 23, 311-312.

UTZURRUM, R. C. B. (1995). Feeding ecology of Philippine fruit bats: patterns of resource use and seed dispersal. Symposium of the Zoological Society of London 67, 63-77.

VAN DER PIJL, L. (1957). The dispersal of plants by bats (Chiropterophily). Acta Botanica Neerlandia 6, 291-315.

VAN DER ZEE, D. & SKINNER, J. D. (1977). Preliminary observations on samango and vervet monkeys near Lake Sibayi. South African Journal of Science 73, 381-382.

VAN DEVENDER, R. W. (1983). Basilicus basilicus (Chisbala, Garrobo, Basilisk, Jesus Christ Lizard). In Costa Rican Natural History (ed. D. H. Janzen), pp. 379-380. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, USA.

VAN SCHAIK, C. P. (1996). Strangling figs: their role in the forest. In: Leuser: A Sumatran Sanctuary (ed. C. P. van Schaik and J. Supriatna), pp. 112-120. YABSHI, Depok, Indonesia.

VAN SCHAIK, C. P. & VAN NOORDWIJK, M. A. (1988). Scramble and contest in feeding competition among female long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis). Behaviour 105, 77-98.

VÁSQUEZ-YANES, C., OROZCO, A., FRANCOIS, G. & TREJO, L. (1975). Observations of seed dispersal by bats in a tropical humid region in Veracruz, Mexico. Biotropica 7, 73-76.

VELLAYON, S. (1981). The nutritive value of Ficus in the diet of the lar gibbon (Hylobates lar). Malaysian Applied Biology 10, 177-181.

VERKERKE, W. (1987). Syconial anatomy of Ficus asperifolia (Moraceae), a gynodioecious tropical fig. Proceeding of the Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen C 90, 461-492.

VERNON, C. J. (1993). Gluttonous starlings raid Natal mahogany. Bee-eater 44, 9.

VILLA-R, B. (1967). Los murcielagos de Mexico. Instituto de Biologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City, Mexico.

WAIDE, R. B. (1996). Birds. In The Food Web of a Tropical Rain Forest (ed. D. P. Reagan and R. B. Waide), pp. 363-398. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, USA.

WALTON, D. W. & RICHARDSON, B. J. (1989). Fauna of Australia. Mammalia. Vol. 1B. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, Australia.

WASER, P. (1977). Feeding, ranging and group size in the Mangabey Cercocebus albigena. In Primate Ecology: Studies of Feeding and Ranging Behaviour in Lemurs, Monkeys and Apes (ed. T. H. Clutton-Brock), pp. 183-222. Academica Press, London, UK.

WATERHOUSE, R. D. (1997). Some obsevations on the ecology of the rainbow lorikeet Trichoglossus haematodus in Oatley, South Sydney. Corella 21, 17-24.

WAUGH, D. (1995). Action for Buffon’s Macaw in Ecuador: a report from the field. Proceedings of the International Aviculturists Society January 11-15, 1995.

WELLS, D. R. (1975). Bird Report: 1972 and 1973. Malayan Nature Journal 28, 186-213.

WELLS, D. R. (1982). Bird Report: 1974 and 1975. Malayan Nature Journal 36, 61-85.

WELLS, D. R. (1999). Bird of the Thai-Malay Peninsula, Vol 1: Non-passerines. Academic Press, London, UK.

WENDELN, M. C., RUNKLE, J. R. & KALKO, E. K. V. (2000). Nutritional values of 14 fig species and bat feeding preferences in Panama. Biotropica 32, 489-501.

WHEELWRIGHT, N. T., HABER, W. A., MURRAY, K. G. & GUIDON, C. (1984). Tropical fruit eating birds and their food plants: a survey of a Costa Rican lower montane forest. Biotropica 16, 173-192.

WHITE, F. J. (1998). Seasonality and socioecology: the importance of variation in fruit abundance to Bonobo sociality. International Journal of Primatology 19, 1013-1027.

WHITE, L. J. T., TUTIN, C. E. G., & FERNANDEZ, M. (1993). Group composition and diet of forest elephants, Loxodonta africana cyclotis Matschie 1900, in the Lope Reserve, Gabon. African Journal of Ecology 31, 181-199.

WHITING, M. J. & GREEFF, J. M. (1997). Facultative frugivory in the cape flat lizard Platysaurus capensis (Sauria: Cordylidae). Copeia 4, 811-818.

WHITING, M. J. & GREEFF, J. M. (1999). Use of heterospecific cues by the lizard Platysaurus broadleyi for food location. Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology 45, 420-423.

WHITNEY, K. D., FOGIEL, M. K., LAMPERTI, A. M., HOLBROOK, K. M., STAUFFER, D. J., HARDESTY, B. D., PARKER, V. T. & SMITH, T. B. (1998). Seed dispersal by Ceratogymna hornbills in the Dja reserve, Cameroon. Journal of Tropical Ecology 14, 351-371.

WHITTAKER, R. J., JONES, S. H. (1994). The role of frugivorous bats and birds in the rebuilding of a tropical forest ecosystem, Krakatau, Indonesia. Journal of Biogeography 21, 245-258.

WHITTEN, A. J. (1984). Ecology comparisons between Kloss Gibbons and other small gibbons. In The Lesser Apes. Evolutionary and Behavioural Biology (ed. H. Preuschoft, D. J. Chivers, W. Y. Brockelman and N. Creel), pp. 219-227. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh, UK.

WHITTEN, J. E. J. (1981). Ecological separation of three diurnal squirrels in tropical rainforest on Siberut Island, Indonesia. Journal of Zoology, 193, 405-420.

WHITTEN, P. L. (1988). Effects of patch quality and feeding subgroup size on feeding success in Vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops). Behaviour 105, 35-52.

WICKLER, W. & SEIBT, U. (1976). Field studies of the African fruit bat Epomophorus wahlbergi (Sundevall) with special reference to male calling. Zeitschrift fur Tierpsychologie 40, 345-376.

WIEBES, J. T. (1979). Co-evolution of figs and their insect pollinators. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 10, 1-12.

WILES, G. J., ENGBRING, J. & OTOBED, D. (1997). Abundance, biology and human exploitation of bats in the Palau Islands. Journal of Zoology 241, 203-227.

WILLIAMS, K. D. (1984). The Central American tapir (Tapirus bairdii Gill) in northwestern Costa Rica. Dissertation Abstracts International, B (Science and Engineering) 45, 1075.

WILLSON, M. F. (1989). Gut retention times of experimental pseudoseeds by emus. Biotropica 21, 210-213.

WILSON, J. M., STEWART, P. D., RAMANGASON, G. S., DENNING, A. M. & HUTCHINGS, M. S. (1989). Ecology and conservation of the Crowned Lemur, Lemur coronatus, at Ankarana, N Madagascar – with notes on Sanford’s Lemur, other sympatrics and subfossil lemurs. Folia Primatologica 52, 1-26.

WINDSOR, D. M., MORRISON, D. W., ESTRIBI, M. A., DE LEON, B. (1989). Phenology of fruit and leaf production by ‘strangler’ figs on Barro Colorado Island, Panama. Experientia 45, 647-653.

WINKLER, H., CHRISTIE, D. A. & NURNEY, D. (1995). Woodpeckers: A Guide to the Woodpeckers, Piculets and Wrynecks of the world. Pica Press, Sussex, UK.

WODZICKI, K. & FELTEN, H. (1975). The peka, or fruit bat (Pteropus tonganus tonganus) (mammalia, Chiroptera), of Nuie Island, Pacific Ocean. Pacific Science 29, 131-138.

WOLTON, R. J., ARAK, P. A., GODFRAY, H. C. J. & WILSON, R. P. (1982). Ecological and behavioural studies of the Megachiroptera at Mount Nimba, Liberia, with notes on Microchiroptera. Mammalia 46, 419-448.

WOODALL, P. F. (1985). Crested and feral pigeons feeding on fig-seeds – commensalism, feeding rates and vigilance. Emu 85, 121-125.

WORTHINGTON, A. (1982). Population sizes and breeding rhythms of two species of manakins in relation to food supply. In The Ecology of a Tropical Forest. Seasonal Rhythms and Long-term Changes (ed. E. G. Leigh Jr, A. S. Rand and D. M. Windsor), pp. 213-225. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C., USA.

WORTHINGTON, A. H. (1989). Adaptations for avian frugivory – assimilation efficiency and gut transit-time of Manacus vitellinus and Pipra mentalis. Oecologia 80, 381-389.

WRANGHAM, R. W. (1977). Feeding behaviour of Chimpanzees in Gombe National Park, Tanzania. In Primate Ecology: Studies of Feeding and Ranging Behaviour in Lemurs, Monkeys and Apes (ed. T. H. Clutton-Brock), pp. 503-538. Academic Press, London, UK.

WRANGHAM, R. W., CONKLIN, N. L., ETOT, G., OBUA, J., HUNT, K. D., HAUSER, M. D. & CLARK, A. P. (1993). The value of figs to chimpanzees. International Journal of Primatology 14, 243-256.

WRANGHAM, R. W., CHAPMAN, C. A. & CHAPMAN, L. J. (1994). Seed dispersal by forest chimpanzees in Uganda. Journal of Tropical Ecology 10, 355-368.

WU, K. (1994). Particular in Sichuan Mammals. Science and Technology Press, Sichuan, China.

XU, R. X. (1997). Macaque and I (Chinese). Yuan Liu Publication Limited, Taipei, Taiwan.

XUE, L. (1983). Birds and Mammals of Hainan. Science Press, Beijing, China.

YAMAGIWA, J., MWANZA, N., YUMOTO, T. & MARUHASHI, T. (1994). Seasonal change in the composition of the diet of eastern lowland gorillas. Primates 35, 1-14.

YANG, D., LI, C. & YANG, B. (1997). Studies on animal structure and biodiversity on Ficus in the tropical rain of Xishuangbanna, China. Zoological Research 18, 189-196.

YANG, L., WEN, X., HAN, L,, YANG, X., SHI, W. & WANG, S. (1995). The avifauna of Yunnan China. Yunnan Science and Technology Press, Yunnan, China.

YU, Y. T. (1998). Migration and stopover ecology of Orental Reed Warbler Acrocephalus orientalis at Mai Po Marshes Nature Reserve, Hong Kong. Unpublished B.Sc. thesis, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.

YUMOTO, T. (1999). Seed dispersal by Salvin’s Currasow, Mitu salvini (Cracidae), in a tropical forest of Colombia: Direct measurement of dispersal distance. Biotropica 31, 654-660.

YUMOTO, T., NOMA, N. & MARUHASHI, T. (1998). Cheek-pouch dispersal of seeds by Japanese monkey (Macaca fuscata yakui) on Yakushima Island, Japan. Primates, 39, 325-338.

YUMOTO, T., YAMIGAWA, J., MURAZA, N. & MARUHASHI, T. (1994). List of plant species identified in Kahuzi-Biega National Park, Zaire. Tropics 3, 295-308.

ZAKARIA, M. (1994). Ecological Effects of Selective Logging in a Lowland Dipterocarp Forest on Avifauna, with Special Reference to Frugivorous Birds Faculty of Life Sciences. Ph.D. thesis, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Malaysia.

ZANN, R. A., MALE, E. B. & DARJONO. (1990). Bird colonisation of Anak Krakatau, an emergent volcanic island. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B 328, 95-121.

ZAR, J. (1996). Biostatistical Analysis. Third Edition. Prentice-Hall, Inc., Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, USA.

ZHANG, C., ZHU, X. & PANG, B. (1997). Birds of China. China Forestry Publishing House, Beijing, China.

ZHANG, S-Y. & WANG, L-X. (1995). Fruit consumption and seed dispersal of Ziziphus cinnamomum (Rhamnaceae) by two sympatric primates (Cebus apella) and Ateles paniscus in French Guiana. Biotropica 27, 397-401.

ZHAO, Q., DENG, Z. & XU, J. (1991). Natural foods and their ecological implications for Macaca thibetana at Mount Emei, China. Folia Primatologia 57, 1-15.

ZHAO, Z. J. (1995). A Handbook of the Birds of China, Vol. 1. Non-passerines. Jilin Science and Technology Press, Changchun, China.

ZHENG, B. (1985). Fauna Sinica, Aves Vol. 8, Passeriformes: Eurylaimidae-Irenidae. Science Press, Beijing, China.

ZHENG, G. & WANG, Q. (1998). China Red Data Book of Endangered Animals: Aves. Science Press, Beijing, China.

ZHENG, Z. (1978). Fauna Sinica, Aves Vol. 4, Galliformes. Science Press, Beijing, China.

ZHENG, Z. (1993). Economic Birds of China. 2nd Edition. Science Press, Beijing, China.

ZHENG, Z., LI, D., WANG, Z., WANG, Z., JIANG, Z. & LU, T. (1983). The Avifauna of Xizang. Science Press, Beijing, China.

ZHENG, Z., LONG, Z. & ZHENG, B. (1987). Fauna Sinica, Aves Vol. 11, Passeriformes: Muscicapidae II. Timaliinae. Science Press, Beijing, China.

ZHENG, Z., XIAN, Y. & GUAN, G. (1991). Fauna Sinica, Aves Vol. 6, Columbiformes, Psittaciformes, Cuculiformes and Strigiformes. China, Beijing, China.

ZIMMERMAN, D. A., TURNER, D. A., PEARSON, D. J. (1996). Birds of Kenya and Northern Tanzania. Christopher Helm, London, UK.

ZONA, S. & HENDERSON, A. (1989). A review of animal-mediated seed dispersal of palms. Selbyana 11, 6-21.

RETURN TO THE HOME PAGE

Advertisements

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s